13. THE HABSBURGS (ruled for 640 years, with 20 emperors who ruled over the Holy Roman Empire with almost unbroken succession, until 1806)
Review:
1275: Deutscher Ritter Orden (Friesach)
1276: Ottocar Premysl forced by Rudolf to withdraw from Vienna
1278: Rudolph finally defeats Ottocar at the Battle of Marchfeld /Dürnkurt (dies). (Grillparzer)
1282: Rudolf and his son Albrecht are awarded the Duchy of Austria (Upper and Lower Austria, Styria)

14. Domestic Violence in the Middle Ages: medieval customs encouraged French men to beat their wives regularly The 13th century code in France advised “men may be excused for the injuries they inflict on their wives, nor should the law intervene. Provided that he neither kills nor maims (verstummeln) her, it is legal for a man to beat his wife)

15. Rudy’s sons start to enlarge the Hapsburg are
1335 Albrecht II acquires Carinthia & it becomes a part of the Habsburg dynasty; (together with Austria, Styria & Krain)

In the 14th century Carinthians are facing a lot of challenges:
1338 Klagenfurt & St. Veit receive Stadtrechte (charters)
1338 Grasshopper plague throughout Europe
1348 earthquake in Villach & Pest Black Death/ Bubonic plague: ( a disease carried by fleas on rats struck Western Europe; destroyed communities; farms were abandoned; the busy commerce of the 12th and 13th century collapsed; Europe did not fully recover for over 100 years; (50% of the farmers died in Carinthia; in Carinthia the Jews were blamed as everywhere – especially in Wolfsberg Jews were persecuted)


16. Karl IV son-in-law (an emperor the Holy Roman Empire) : Rudolf IV der Stifter (Hapsburg) starts to reign at the age of 19
*levied alcohol tax;
since Austria was not an electorate, (could not choose the emperor) Rudolf IV forged (fälschen) the Privilegium maius (1359) which granted the Habsburg special rights (to attest higher ranks) e.g. holding of fiefs (Lehen) in his land, administration of justice without appeal to the emperor, succession as defined by primogeniture (first born) and in the female line; the duchy of Austria and the domains connected to it were to be indivisible, at ceremonies the duke was to be considered an archduke palatine and be seated to the Emperor´s right, directly after the electors.

Austria is getting larger and larger:
1363: Rudy acquired property in Vorarlberg, Earldom of Tyrol and parts of the Windische Mark.(southern Styria and today’s Slowenia)



17.
1364 he sets up the Rudolfinische Hausordnung agreement with his father-in-law) Emperor Karl IV on the possession and the law of succession of the Habsburg territories, together with his brothers Albrecht III and Leopold III (i.e. all lands belonging to the Habsburg dynasty were not to be divided and that the oldest son was to be the rightful heir to the lands.)

What else made Rudi famous?
1365. Rudolf founded Vienna University; arranged for the construction of St. Stephen´s Cathderal to be continued
Rudi died without an heir- his two brothers took over (buried in St. Stephen´s Cathedral; Monuments in Vienna at the Singertor entrance to St. Stephen´s in front of the Town Hall and in the ceremonial hall of the Univ. His portrait was the first to be painted of a prince in Central Europe.

20.
1379: Habsburg divides its dynasty
1. Brother: Albert: Albert Line: Upper and Lower Austria, Vienna
2. Brother: Leopold (Leopold Linie), Styria, Carinthia, Krain, Tirol and Vorlande
Leopold has 2 sons: Friedrich (Tirol, Vorlande lives in Innsbruck) and Ernst: Styria, Carinthia, Krain lives in Graz

This is bla-bla
1362 Fair in St. Veit
( Fam. Leitgeb an innkeeper 1238 in St. Veit, Payer (Bavarian), Walche (Italian Lach) Schilcher (Bozen)

Friesach (Bathhouses: the shoemakers (Schuster) and leather (Lederbruderschaft) in Friesach owned one; invited the poor once a week to take a bath

1404: beginning of antisemitism (not only during Hitler’s regime) Jews were forbidden in Salzburg and the majority left Friesach and headed towards Russia and Poland)

1411 Carinthia becomes a part of the Styrian Line of the Hapsburgs: Innerösterreich it gets very complicated and I don´t want to explain it

New trend in praising the Blessed Virgin Mary:1447 – 1500 Maria Waitschach; Maria Moos in Kirchberg/Wieting;


Matchmaking period (Blind dates) in the 15th century
Friedrich III (1440 – 1493) whose magnificent tomb is one of the glories of St. Stephen´s Cathedral in Vienna, is one of those
controversial figures.

Some historians accuse him of lethargy and indecision (Unentschlossenheit), pointing to his passivity in face of the Hungarian invasion that culminated in the Hungarian King Mathias Corvinus capturing Vienna and making it his capital from 1485 until his death in 1490, while Friedrich made his headquarters at Wiener Neustadt and waited.
He married his son Maximilian to Maria of Burgundy, the daugther of Charles the Bold /Kühne, who had made Burgundy a powerful and flourishing Duchy stretching from what is now Switzerland right up to the North Sea and including the Franch Comte, the Flanders, Brabant, Holland, Friesland and Luxemburg.

21.
These vast possessions were to involve Friedrich´s successors in endless wars against France, and eventually Burgund itself had to be dede (abtreten) to France in 1493, but the other territories remained in Austrian possession .
(Let others wage war for a throne you, happy Austria marry. Some say Maximilian, because he arranged even more
lucrative marriages than his father did; others interpret it as including a reference to Friedrich´s lack of military enterprise and
maintain that the lines were written by Mathias Corvinus himself in a moment of bitterness.
Another quote: Nam quae Mars aliis dat tibi regna Venus. (The lands that others are given by Mars, you receive from Venus) which can be taken as a reference to th fact that Maximilian´s marriage was definetly a love match as well as a dynastic convenience. There are also two alternative Latin versions of the famous motto.
A.E.I.O.U. which is associated with Friedrich III and appears on his tomb in St. Stephen´s Cathedral.
1. Austria est imperare orbi universon (it is for Austria to rule the entire world)
2. Austria erit in orbe ultima (Austria will outlast all other powers). Frierich III had the double distinction (Unterscheidung) of being the first Habsburg to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, and the last Emperor to be crowned in Rome.

23. Austria is expanding
1474 Habsburgs acquire rest of Vorarlberg
Carinthia is suffering
1476:1478;1480;1483 Turkish invasion:

24.
1477 Habsburgs acquire Netherlands & Franche Comte by marriage . the result :Most of these fortunes were quickly squandered (vertan). Many troops returned from the war to become beggars and vagabonds who roamed around the countryside getting into trouble through drinking and theft.
1483 building altars: indulgence was granted (Ablässeverliehen)
1496 Max I: Jews had to leave Carinthia (100 people)


25. at the end of the late medieval period: catastrophy:war, pest, invasions, etc.
1480 Friedrich III battle with Mathias Corvinus: (Friesach, Althofen, Taggenburnn, Gmünd)

Grasshopper Pest; corn and cereal decayed; (Miracle in Maria Saal)
Farmers were attacked not only by the Hungarian`s but also by the emperor`s soldiers (didn´t receive any money)
Hungarians in St. Veit 16. October 1482- promised not to plunder again up to 1486
1490- Corvinus dies – troops leave


26
1493- 1519: Maximilian I makes his Imperial residence at Innsbruck; carried on his father´s mission of consolidating the power and influence of the House of Hapsburg and even outdid him as a matchmaker.
Character: “knight in shing armour”; a parago(Vorbild) of chivalry, manliness and nobility,Innsbruck offered the hunting and mountaineering that were the Emperor´s principal diversions (Zeitvertreib).
In Friedrich´s reign the chief threat to the Habsburg domains had come from the east, now the chief enemy was France and her various allies in Italy, particularly the waning(nachlassen) power of Venice.
1496: Marriage of Maximilians son to daughter of Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella
1498: Foundation of Vienna Hofkapelle