Martin Luther was very angry when Tetzel and his assistants beg an preaching and selling Indulgences (Ablaß) in Wittenberg. He was so angry that he sat down and wrote out a long list of arguments against the selling of Indulgences, and he nailed the finished list to the door of the Church at Wittenberg Castle in October 1517. This list was later called 'The Ninety Five Theses.'
The list was supposed to be things he wished to discuss with other Churchmen - he did NOT write them with the idea of starting a rebellion against the Pope.
His ideas, however, were supported by many thousands of people. This encouraged him to attack other Catholic practices such as:
Praying to saints/Going on pilgrimages/F asting/Giving money to charity to get forgiveness for sins/ The use of statues in churches
This was completely against the teaching of the church and was called "heresy". Many peop1e had been executed in the past for making similar statements.

Luther kept going back to his original idea, that all you needed to be a good Christian was faith in God, and that you did not even need a priest to help you to pray or speak to God.

The invention of the printing press helped to spread Luther's ideas. Pamphlets were printed and distributed cheaply and quickly throughout Germany and the rest of Europe. Many people read or were told of his ideas and agreed with many of the things he wrote about including:
. Objecting to paying taxes to Rome
. The fact that many priests knew litlte or no Latin and
had little training
. That foreigners were made bishops, and they cared
nothing for people in their care
. German lords objected to the Church interfering in
German politics
One very powerful supported of Luther was the Duke of Saxony. He insisted that the Pope should send someone to Germany to answer Luther' s arguments. In 1518 Cardinal Cajetan went to Augsburg to argue with Luther; but this only resulted in Luther growing even more apart from the Catholic Church. In June 1519 Luther made the claim that "the authority of the Bible was greater than that of the Pope".

Germany at the time was not one huge country as it is today, but a collection of very small independent countries, all with their own rulers. One man had the loyalty of all these German princes and he was called 'The Holy Roman Emperor' (HRE). This Emperor was elected by a collection of Princes, Kings and Archbishops. The HRE Maximillian I had died and the German Princes were very anxious about who would be their new Emperor. The Pope wanted King Francis I of France to be elected HRE and he therefore did not want to be seen interfering in German affairs so he left Luther alone. In the end King Charles I of Spain was elected HRE and the Pope now had nothing to lose by attacking Luther. But because of the e1ection of the HRE it was two years before the Pope started to do anything - and in that time, support for Luther and his views had increased.
Many Gernan Princes supported Luther. They were fed up with the Church taking money from their lands in the form of taxes. They saw this as a way of becoming independent of the Catholic Church, and Rome. Luther wanted their support to make the German church independent of Rome.

The new HRE Charles was a very good Catholic and he decided that something had to be done to try and stop Luther's criticisms of the Church and the Pope. He called a meeting (Diet) at Worms, a city near Mainz in Germany. He promised Luther that he would be safe if he went to this meeting. At the meeting the HRE insisted that only the Pope had the authority to say what the Bible meant - not Luther, or anyone else. Luther refused to take back anything he had said.
The whole point of the meeting, however, was to insist that only the Pope had the authority to say what the Bible meant, not Luther. As a result Charles V issued the Edict ofWorms.

Luther`s reforms also appealed to the peasants, who bore a heavy burden of church taxes.
In 1524 peasants in southern Germany began an armed rebellion against the nobility and the Church. They protested agaisnt efforts to increase their feudal dues. and demanded the right to choose their own priests and the right to cut wood and take game from the lord forests. At first L. supported the revolts, but later drew back when he heard reports of burning, looting and killing. He bitterly criticized their actions and sided with the nobles, who stamped out the revolt, killing about 100,000 peasants. Many felt betrayed and returned to the Cath. church.
In 1555 at the Diet of Augsburg,Charles V agreed that each prince could choose whether his lands would be Catholic or Lutheran. By allowing individual rulers to determine the religion of a territory, the Peace of Ausgburg officially recognized the newest split within Christendom.

As a result of the Edict ofWorms Luther was no longer safe. On his way back from Worms he was taken by the Duke of Saxony's men to Wartburg Castle to live in safety until things calmed down. Luther was lucky in that the HRE was too busy at home in Spain to insist that his edict was carried out.
Luther lived at Wartburg for a year where he translated the New Testament ftom Latin into German so that ordinary people could read what the Bible said. Luther's ideas spread


Martin Luther


He was against selling of indulgences

He wanted salvation to be through faith and the Bible

He didn't believe in the supremacy of the Pope


Posted 95 Thesis on church door

Entered a monastery

Refused to withdraw his ideas at the Diet of Worms

Published three books outlining his ideas

Had a religious experience convincing him salvation was possible through faith alone

Translated the Bible from Latin into German

Northern humanists criticized the Roman Catholic Church

1. Felt the popes acted not as spiritual leaders but as warriors and politicians

2. Priests were concerned with ceremonies not piety

3. The church was concerned with income not saving souls

Generalization: As a result of the Reformation, religion divided Europe.
Generalization: As a result of Catholic and Protestant attempts to strengthen their followers' faith, education became more important.
Generalization: The power of the national governments increased while the power of the pope declined. 1. Southern and eastern Europe and Ireland remained firmly Catholic. France and the Netherlands were splint religiously. Switzerland, northern Germany, England, Scotland and the Scandinavian countries were Protestant.
2. Many new universities appeared in Europe in the 1400's and 1500's. Protestant belief in studying the Bible stressed the importance of reading. The Jesuits and other religious orders set up schools to strengthen the faith of Catholics.
3. Protestant governments took responsibility for the leadership of the established church. Catholic rulers often obtained considerable control over their churches. The pope made concessions to retain the loyalty of rulers.


Switzerland emerged as a center of the Protestant Reformation. Ulrich Zwingli, taught in Zurich during the same years that Luther was launching the Protestant Reformation in Germany. Like Luther, Zwingli had no use for elaborate rituals. In his church, he abolished the Catholic Mass, confessions, and indulgences.
He also allowed priests to marry .
Zwingli believed that a good pastor, or minister, and a strong sense of discipline among church members would help Christians lead a spiritual life. He held services in undecorated buildings and read sermons based on the Bible.
By 1529, Zwingli"s ideas had spread to many parts of Switzerland.

Calvinists: In the Swiss cities of Basel and Geneva, Calvin led one of the best organized Protestant movements.
Calvin believed in predestination, the idea that God had chosen who would be saved. Calvin"s critics wamed that predestination would lead people to act irresponsibly. Why should individuals lead a good life, they asked, if God had already determined their fate? But Calvin answered that people should lead good lives in order to show that God had chosen them for salvation.
Calvinists won many converts in commercial centers such as the Netherlands. There, as elsewhere, middle-class townspeople were attracted to Calvinism because it reflected their belief that people should live simply and work hard. Moreover, Calvinism answered many people"s criticisms of the Catholic Church.

French Calvinists, called Huguenots were powerful in southern France.

During the 1550s, John Knox took the new faith to Scotland. Followers also -. established churches in England, where they later became known as Puritans...
A number of Protestant sects sprang up all across Europe. Some clashed violently with each other and with Catholics. Each group saw itself as God"s agent and viewed all others as the devil"s workers. Many years would pass before Europeans accepted the idea that two or more religions could coexist. Protestant sects developed their own beliefs based on reading and interpreting the Bible. For example: the Anabaptists - latter called Baptists - argued that infants could not be baptized as members of a church because they were too young to understand the Christian faith. They restricted baptism and church membership to adults. Anabaptists in Germany were vigoruously persecuted by other Protestants and by Catholics alike. Yet their ideas continued to influence Protestant thinking in many countries.

By 1555, most princes in northern Germany were Lutheran, while most princes
in southern Germany were Catholic. Lutheran ideas had also spread to
Scandinavia. However, the dispute between Catholics and Protestants did not end. As other reformers won followers, the conflict spread.

Wives of Henry VIII
6 wives
3 children
1. Catherine of Aragón (a Spanish princess) who had previously been married to his brother Prince Arthur. Henry was betrothed to Catherine by his father in 1509 and they had a daughter Mary who will later become Queen Mary 1. In 1527 Henry announced his desire to divorce Catherine because she had failed to produce a male heir.
2. Anne Boleyn, a young and beautiful lady-in-waiting to the former queen, was married to Henry in 1533 and bore him Elizabeth who was later to become Queen Elizabeth 1. After charging Queen Anne with incest and adultery Henry had her beheaded.
3. Jane Seymore and Henry were married a few days after Anne's death in 1536. She died soon after bearing him his only legitimate son who was to succeed Henry to become Edward VI.
4. Anne of Cleaves and Henry were married in 1540 to form a tie between England and the Protestant princes of Germany. After only a few months Henry found the political alliance no longer to be to his advantage had the marriage annulled.
5. Catherine Howard and Henry were married the same year in 1540. In 1542 Henry once again accused his wife of adultery and had Catherine beheaded.
6. Katherine Parr was Henry's sixth and last wife.

Challenges for Charles VHapsburg
Considered "foreigner" by SpanishInefficient governmentLack of industrial growthFood shortages
Holy Roman Empire
Defending empire against the TurksReligious WarsWidely scattered territories

Successors and Counterreformation /The French Monarchy / Medici /Edict of Nantes

The Catholics' Counter-Reformation:
The Counter-reformation began in Spain with the introduction of the
1. The Inquisition: The Holy Office, or the Inquisition had its roots in the 13th century. However, it was reconvened in 1492 after the Spanish Reconquista as a patriotic move in order to purge the country of Moslems and Jews and thus unify the state, but also to achieve higher standards for the clergy and stamp out heresies. This Inquisition was carried forward with the advent of Protestantism and was used elsewhere, in France and Italy, where Catholic influence was strong.
2. New Monastic Orders: In addition, the Catholic Church created several new monastic orders such as the Theatines, the Capuchins (who were a branch of the Franciscans), and Ursulines. The most famous of these, however, was the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, founded in 1540 by Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish former soldier. The Jesuits, organized with intense discipline and militancy, dedicated themselves to win back Protestants, combat heresy, and spread Catholicism through missionary activity abroad. They became the paramilitary "shock troops" of the Catholic church. They actively involved themselves in politics and used intrigue and even force whenever necessary.
3. The Council of Trent 1545-63: The Church also convened the Council of Trent in 1545 which not only undertook extensive internal reforms between 1545-1563, but also published its own Index of Prohibited Books in 1557. While the Inquisition and even the Counter-reformation itself petered out by the end of the 16th century, the Jesuits continued strong for over 200 years.

Austria in the 16th century

Ferdinand I (1521 – 1564)
Preceded by:Louis II
King of HungaryKing of Croatia and SlavoniaKing of Bohemia
Succeeded by:Maximilian II(Maximilian I)
Preceded by:Charles V
King of GermanyHoly Roman EmperorArchduke of Austria
ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia and Carniola)
Succeeded by:Archduke Charles II
ruler of Further Austria including Tyrol
Succeeded by:Archduke Ferdinand II
Ferdinand was born in Madrid, the son of Juana the Mad, Queen of Castile (14791555), and Philip I the Handsome, King of Castile (14781506), who was heir to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg.
Ferdinand was the younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who entrusted him with the government of the Habsburg hereditary lands (roughly modern-day Austria and Slovenia).
After Charles's abdication, Ferdinand assumed the title of Holy Roman Emperor, Charles having agreed to exclude his own son Philip from the German succession, which instead passed to Ferdinand's eldest son Maximilian (15271576).
After Suleiman the Magnificent defeated Ferdinand's brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Ferdinand was elected King of Bohemia in his place. The throne of Hungary became the subject of a dynastic dispute between Ferdinand and John Zápolya, voivode of Transylvania.
The most dangerous moment of Ferdinand's career came in 1529 when he took refuge in Bohemia from a massive but ultimately unsuccessful assault on his capital by Suleiman and the Ottoman armies at the Siege of Vienna. A further Ottoman attack on Vienna was repelled in 1533. In that year Ferdinand signed a peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire, splitting the Kingdom of Hungary into a Habsburg sector in the west and John Zápolya's domain in the east, the latter effectively now a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1547 the Bohemian Estates rebelled against Ferdinand when he ordered the Bohemian army against the German Protestants. After suppressing Prague with the help of his brother's Spanish forces, he retaliated by limiting the privileges of Bohemian cities and inserting a new bureaucracy of royal officials to control urban authorities. Ferdinand was a supporter of the Counter-Reformation and helped lead the Catholic fight-back against what he saw as the heretical tide of Protestantism. For example, in 1551 he invited the Jesuits to Vienna and in 1556 to Prague, and in 1561 he revived the Archdiocese of Prague.
In 1554 Ferdinand divides his lands among his sons:
Maxmilian II,
Archduke Charles II
Archduke Ferdinand II

1. Maximilian II (Lower & Upper Austria, Bohemia and later Hungary)
  • his sympathies for Lutheranism had caused frictions in the House of Habsburg and his father had threatened him with exclusion from the succession. Officially he remained a Catholic.
*on a personal basis he granted freedom of worship to the Protestant nobility and worked for reform in the Roman Catholic church, including the right of priests to marry. This failed because of Spanish opposition.
2. Charles II
Unlike his brother Maximilian II, Charles was a religious Catholic and promoted the Counterreformation, e.g. by inviting the Jesuits to his realm.
As the Inner Austrian line had to bear the major burden of the wars against the Turks, the fortress of Karlstadt/Karlovac in Croatia was founded and named after him. In 1585, Charles founded the University of Graz, which is named Karl-Franzens-Universität after him.
3. Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria : At the behest of his father, he was put into charge of the administration of Bohemia in 1547. Also, he led the campaign against the Turks in Hungary in 1556.
After his father's death in 1564, Ferdinand received the rulership over Tyrol and other Further Austrian possessions under his father's will. However, he remained as governor of Bohemia in Prague until 1567 following the wishes of his brother Maximilian II.

Rudolf was born in Vienna on July 18, 1552. He was the eldest son and successor of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary; his mother was Maria of Spain, a daughter of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal.
Rudolf spent between the ages of 11 and 19 at his mother's brother (uncle) Phillip II's court in Spain. After his return to Vienna his father was concerned about Rudolf's aloof and stiff nature, typical of the more conservative Spanish court, instead of the more relaxed and open Bohemian court; [2]
*Rudolf would remain for the rest of his life reserved, secretive and largely a homebody who did not like to travel or even partake in the daily affairs of state.[2]
  • He was more intrigued by occult learning, which was mainstream in the Renaissance period such as astrology and alchemy, as well as collecting, a patron of the arts, horses, clocks and a wide variety of personal hobbies. He suffered from periodic bouts of "melancholy" (depression), which was common in the Habsburg line, which became worse with age, manifested by a withdrawal from the world and its affairs into his private interests. Rudolf never married but had many mistresses and children with a retinue of 'imperial women'.
*Historians have traditionally blamed Rudolf's preoccupation with the arts, occult sciences and other personal interests as the reason for the political disasters of his reign.
*Although raised in his uncles Catholic court in Spain, Rudolf was tolerant of Protestantism and other religions including Judaism
His conflict with the Ottoman Turks was the final cause of his undoing. Unwilling to compromise with the Turks, and stubbornly determined he could unify all of Christendom with a new Crusade, he entered a long and indecisive war with the Turks between 1593 and 1606, known as "The Long War".
  • In 1605 Rudolf was forced by his other family members to cede control of the Hungarian affair to his younger brother Archduke Mathias, who by 1606 forged a difficult peace with the Hungarian rebels (Peace of Vienna), and the Turks (Peace of Zsitvatorok). Rudolf was angry with his brothers concessions, which he saw as giving away too much in order to further Mathias' hold on power, and so Rudolf prepared to start a new war with the Turks; but Matthias rallied support from the disaffected Hungarians and forced Rudolf to give up the crown of Hungary, Austria and Moravia to Matthias. At the same time, seeing a moment of royal weakness, Bohemian Protestants demanded greater religious liberty, which Rudolf granted in the Letter of Majesty in 1609. However the Bohemians continued to press for further freedoms and Rudolf used his military to repress them. The Bohemian Protestants appealed to Matthias for help, whose army then held Rudolf prisoner in his castle in Prague, until 1611, when Rudolf was forced to cede the crown of Bohemia to his brother.
Rudolf died in 1612, nine months after he had been stripped of all effective power by his younger brother, except the empty title of Holy Roman Emperor, which Matthias would inherit five months later. In May 1618 at en event known as the Defenestrations of Prague, the Protestant Bohemians, in defense of the rights granted them in the Letter of Majesty, began the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).

Patron of arts

Rudolf painted as Vertumnus, Roman God of the seasons, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1590-1). Rudolph greatly appreciated the work.
Rudolf moved the Habsburg capital from Vienna to Prague in 1583. Rudolf loved paintings and collecting paintings and was often reported to sit and stare at a new work for hours on end in rapture.[2] He spared no expense acquiring great past masterworks such as those by Albrecht Durer . He also was patron to some of the best contemporary artists of the age, who mainly produced new works in the mannerism style, artists such as Bartholomaus Spranger, Hans Mont, Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Hans von Aachen and Adrian de Vries. Rudolf's galleries were the most impressive in Europe at the time, and the greatest collection of mannerism to this day.[1]
Rudolf's love of collecting went far beyond paintings and sculptures, he commissioned decorative objects of all kinds and in particular mechanical moving devices. Ceremonial swords and musical instruments, clocks, water works, astrolabes, compasses, telescopes and other scientific instruments, were all created by some of the best craftsmen in Europe.
He kept a menagerie of exotic animals, botanical gardens, and Europe's largest and most unique "cabinet of curiosities" filled with items of the curious and exotic, such as saints relics, coconuts from India, gems, American Indian artifacts.[2]
He patronized natural philosophers such as the botanist Charles de l'Ecluse, and both Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler attended his court.

Matthias (February 24, 1557 - March 20, 1619) of the House of Habsburg reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1612-1619, as King of Hungary from 1608-1619 (as Matthias II), and as King of Bohemia from 1611-1617.
Matthias married Archduchess Anna of Austria, daughter of his uncle Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, whose successor in Further Austria Matthias became in 1595. Their marriage did not produce surviving children.
In 1593 he was appointed governor of Austria by his brother, Emperor Rudolf II. He formed a close association there with the Bishop of Vienna, Melchior Klesl, who later became his chief adviser. In 1605 Matthias forced the ailing emperor to allow him to deal with the Hungarian Protestant rebels. The result was the Peace of Vienna of 1606, which guaranteed religious freedom in Hungary. In the same year Matthias was recognized as head of the House of Habsburg and as the future Holy Roman Emperor, as a result of Rudolf's illness. Allying himself with the estates of Hungary, Austria, and Moravia, Matthias forced his brother to yield rule of these lands to him in 1608; Rudolf later ceded Bohemia in 1611. After Matthias's accession as Holy Roman Emperor, his policy was dominated by Klesl, who hoped to bring about a compromise between Catholic and Protestant states within the Holy Roman Empire in order to strengthen it. Matthias had already been forced to grant religious concessions to Protestants in Austria and Moravia, as well as in Hungary, when he had allied with them against Rudolf. His conciliatory policies were opposed by the more intransigent Catholic Habsburgs, particularly Matthias's brother Archduke Maximilian, who hoped to secure the succession for the inflexible Catholic Archduke Ferdinand (later Emperor Ferdinand II). The start of the Bohemian Protestant revolt in 1618 provoked Maximilian to imprison Klesl and revise his policies. Matthias, old and ailing, yet still virile, was unable to prevent a takeover by Maximilian's faction. Ferdinand, who had already been crowned King of Bohemia (1617) and of Hungary (1618), succeeded Matthias as Holy Roman Emperor. Matthias died in Vienna happy and drunk surrounded by his "woman friends".

17. April
The Age of Discovery
|| Mutual Exchange - Plants, Animals

From the Old World to the Americas : cattle, horses, goats, pigs, chicken; wheat, sugar cane, cotton. From the Americas to Europe : tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco, corn. From America to Africa : corn, vanilla, cocoa. From Africa to America : coffee From Asia to Europe : tulips

European Discovery of the New World

Columbus reports on his voyage to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain:
These people in the Caribbean have no creed and they are not idolaters, but they are very gentle and do not know what it is to be wicked, or to kill others, or to steal...and they are sure that we come from Heaven....So your Highnesses should resolve to make them Christians, for I believe that if you begin, in a little while you will achieve the conversion of a great number of peoples to our holy faith, with the acquisition of great lordships and riches and all their inhabitants for Spain. For without doubt there is a very great amount of gold in these lands…. The people of this island [Hispaniola], and of all the others that I have found and seen, or not seen, all go naked, men and women, just as their mothers bring them forth; although some women cover a single place with the leaf of a plant, or a cotton something which they make for that purpose. They have no iron or steel, nor any weapons....They have no other weapons than the stems of reeds...on the end of which they fix little sharpened stakes. Even these they dare not use....they are incurably timid....
I have not found, nor had any information of monsters, except of an island which is here the second in the approach of the Indies, which is inhabited by a people whom, in all the islands, they regard as very ferocious, who eat human flesh….
They brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks' bells. They willingly traded everything they owned. They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.

The First Americans
Depopulation of Native Americans in Florida, 1519-1617
Percent Decline
Estimated Population

Bubonic plague
Cape Verde Island fever
Bubonic plague

Chronology of Spanish Exploration and Conquest
Christopher Columbus
Discovered West Indies
1513, 1521
Juan Ponce de Leon
First European to explore land in present-day United States
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
First European to see the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan
Led first voyage around the world
Hernando Cortes
Conquered Aztec empire in Mexico
Alva Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
First European to explore American Southwest
Francisco Pizarro
Conquered Inca empire
Hernando de Soto
Explored Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Oklahoma
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Explored American Southwest as far north as Kansas

This site was updated on 03-Apr-07.

|| The Thirty Years War, 1618-1648

A.) The Situation leading to the War Emperor Charles V. had striven hard to reconcile the German Protestant community and the Roman Curia; the unwillingness of both the Council of Trent and the German Protestants to make major concessions had lead to a confrontation of both camps; the Schmalkaldic War, as an attempt to pressure the Protestant camp into taking a more conciliatory attitude, was of only temporary success and was counteracted by Duke-Elector Maurice's Expedition against Innsbruck in 1552, resulting in the Religious Peace of Augsburg, regarded by Germany's protestant princes as a guarantee of their territorial creed, by the Emperor as a document forced upon him under humiliating conditions. Neither the Council of Trent nor the Papal Curia were willing to accept the Religious Peace of Augsburg; Counterreformation agitation tried to undermine it. The Cologne Stift Feud of 1583 provided an opportunity; Emperor Rudolf II. sided with counter-bishop Ernst of Bavaria. Emperor Rudolf II. (1575-1612) clearly supported the Counterreformation; Germany's Protestants, in 1583 reluctant to support Cologne Archbishop Truchsess von Waldburg, were concerned. The case of the free Imperial city of Donauwörth, which was occupied by Bavarian troops in 1607 (and the Counterreformation enforced) without the Emperor taking action, caused the Protestant princes to form the PROTESTANT UNION (1608). In 1609 the CATHOLIC LEAGUE was formed. Emperor Rudolf, as King of Bohemia, cancelled the religious toleration Protestants enjoyed in Bohemia (1609). Thus the stage was prepared for a showdown. B.) The Spark that ignited the War In 1618 the Bohemian Estates deposed Emperor Matthias (as King of Bohemia) in the Defenestration of Prague. They went on to establish a Bohemian nobles' republic following the model of Poland-Lithuania and elected Frederick Count Palatinate King of Bohemia. However, Bohemia held one of the seven electorates within the Holy Roman Empire; to accept the loss of Bohemia, for the House of Habsburg, would also jeopardize her hold on the Imperial crown (for among the 7 electors, three were protestant princes - Brandenburg, Saxony, Palatinate; Bohemia would be the fourth). Background of the Thirty Years' War:
a. Catholics were unhappy because Lutherans were making gains; both Catholics and Lutherans were unhappy
because of the growth of Calvinism. Protestants were negotiating with the Dutch and England and France for
help, while the Catholics were turning to Spain.
b. Spain was eager to crush the Dutch Republic and reopen the mouth of the Scheldt, and to create a strong
territorial block in central Europe composed of Burgundy, the Palatinate, and the Netherlands.
c. Austrian Habsburgs were eager to crush Protestantism and create a strong German national state—an idea
which horrified the French even more than the plans of the Spanish Habsburgs
d. Thus the war was an amalgam:
(l)German civil war, between Catholic v Protestant
(2)German civil war over constitutional issues, emperor v. independents
(3)International war of Bourbons v. Habsburgs, Spanish v. Dutch, etc.
(4)Soldiers of fortune, fighting purely for their own gains

2. The Four Phases of the War:
a. Bohemian Phase (1618-1625): The famed "Defenestration of Prague" was the origin; soon the German
Protestant Union joined with the Czechs in a war against the HRE and Spain. Result: the Catholics won;
Protestantism was stamped out in Bohemia and Spain controlled the Rhineland.
b. Danish Phase (1625-1629): The Danish king reopened affairs, seeking to carve out a kingdom for his son,
with financial help from the Dutch, English, and Richelieu. Albert of Wallenstein raised a personal army
in the name of the emperor--and his mercenaries lived by pillaging everyone. The Danes were defeated,
and Catholicism was on a roll.
c. Swedish Phase (1629-1635): France and Sweden were alarmed, and Sweden's king Gustavus Adolphus,
with French subsidies, created the most modern army of the age--disciplined and using muskets, pikes,
and cannon. The Swedes defeated the divided Germans, but Gus was killed; soon after Wallenstein
was assassinated; the HRE pulled back, easing Protestant fears.
d. Swedish-French Phase (1635-1648): Richelieu now increased subsidies, and Spain attacked France
directly. France retaliated by invading rebellious Catalonia. "In Germany the last...phase of the war was
not so much a civil war among Germans as an international struggle on German soil."

3. The Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
a. Peace of Augsburg was renewed, with the addition of Calvinism to the formula
b. Independence of Holland and Switzerland from the HRE was recognized
c. France received rights in Alsace and Lorraine (which remained independent)
d. Sweden was given control of the mouths of the Oder, Elbe, and Weser Rivers
e. Brandenburg and Bavaria were given increased territory
f. German states were sovereign, all 300 of them, with no hope of unification
g. Germany had been looted, wrecked, and depopulated, losing 1/3 of its population
j. Goals of the Habsburgs, Spanish and Austrian, had been frustrated
k. The Peace "marked the advent in international law of the modern European...system of sovereign
states....independent powers recognizing no superior or common tie....Europe was understood to consist
in a large number of unconnected sovereignties, free and detached atoms, or states, which acted
according to their own laws, following their own political interests, forming and dissolving alliances,
exchanging embassies and legations, alternating between war and peace, shifting positions with a
shifting balance of power."